Views: 150 Author: Venus Publish Time: 2018-05-08 Origin: Google
Proppants are natural or human-made solid materials, such as sand grains or ceramic materials. They are mixed with frac fluid and used to keep (or prop open) fractures during hydraulic fracturing (also known as fracking). Ceramic and other human-made proppants are crushed and shaped into round pellets, which are then dried and placed into a kiln. Proppants are selected for their ability to facilitate the flow of oil and natural gas through the frac fluid into a oil or gas well.
During production that uses technology such as hydraulic fracturing to force petroleum or natural gas from the ground and up through a well, frac fluid containing mainly water and proppants is injected into subterranean rock formations at high pressure. This activity produces a fracture network that allows crude oil and natural gas inside dense rocks to flow into a well and be extracted at the surface. The proppants in the fluid are used to used to keep (or prop) fractures. Proppants include naturally occurring sand particles as well as human-made ceramic materials and resin-coated sand.